Beyoğlu starts with the Tunnel Square extending through the north of Galata. Some parts of Beyoğlu reach Golden Horn (Haliç), but why do people remember only İstiklal Street. It was called Pera during the rule of Byzantine. Pera means ‘the opposite shore’ in Greek. It was the biggest custom gate of Ottoman State in 19th century.
Established in 1868 to educate to sutedns both in Turish and in French, the Galatasaray Lycee was one of the prominent symbols of westernization movement in Ottoman Empire. It qws supposed to serve non-Muslims as well. In 1907 the school was burned down in a fire and for a time courses were held in makeshift buildings in the garden of Beylerbeyi Palace. The school was reopened after restoration in 1909. The 100th anniversary of the school was celebrated with participation of De Gaulle, the ex-President of France.
The hotel was built in 1894 to accomodate the train passengers ffrom Europe at a time when Istanbul was terminus for the Orient Express. Its fame derives not only from its historical value but also from its famous guests, one of whom Agatha Christie, whoose room is now on exhibition to visitors. Its interior and decorations are so well preserved and the atmosphere is so impresive that it makes one feel as if one is living in the past.
Built between 1871-1876, this is an underground qublic transport system connecting Galata to Pera. It is the third oldest undergrund in the world after those of London and New York. It was first concieved by a French contractor, Eugene Henry Gavand, who had foreseen the importance of connecting two districts.In 1971 after a restoratiıon, it resumed service with two wagons 16 m in lenght and with a capacity of 170 making the journey in 90 seconds.